For Developers

When adding user-visible strings to Anki's codebase, extra work is required to make the strings translatable.

Anki's codebase has recently migrated away from the old gettext system, and now only uses Fluent's and

Please start by taking a look at the core documentation to see how strings are presented to translators. Note how translators can not see the areas of the code where a string is used, so comments are often required to help the translators understand what they are translating.

Adding New Strings

As an example, imagine we want to add the string "You have x add-ons".

To add a new translatable string to the codebase, we first need to identify whether it belongs in the core module (text likely to be used by all Anki clients), or whether it is specific to the computer version (the desktop module). Add-ons are only supported by the computer version, so we'll want to use the desktop module in this example.

  • The English core files are stored in ftl/core
  • The English desktop files are stored in ftl/qt

We'll look for a file like ftl/qt/addons.ftl, and add one if no appropriate one exists. Then we need to add the string to the file.

Each string needs a key that uniquely identifies it. It should start with the same text as the filename, and then contain at least a few words separated by hyphens. For example, we might add the following to the file:

addons-you-have-count = You have { $count } add-ons.

If count is 5, then the string will be "You have 5 add-ons.". This means it will look strange if count is 1 - we'd see "You have 1 add-ons." instead of "You have 1 add-on.". We'll need to add another string to cover the singular case:

addons-you-have-count = You have { $count ->
    [one] 1 add-on
   *[other] {$count} add-ons

The text above tells Fluent to use the first string in the singular case, and use the second string in all other cases.

While an improvement, this can make it a bit hard for translators when the "you have" part needs to change depending on the number. So while more verbose, it is better to list out the alternatives in full where possible:

addons-you-have-count = { $count ->
    [one] You have { $count } add-on.
   *[other] You have { $count } add-ons.

This leaves the most control in the hands of the translators to be able to translate the sentence with a natural structure.

Note how the variable was used in the singular case as well. While in English $count will only be 1 in the singular case, in other languages, the singular case can be used for other numbers, such as 21. While translators could replace the 1 with { $count } in their translation, they sometimes do not realise they need to, so using the variable makes mistakes less likely.

Please note that the bulk of the strings in the .ftl files were imported from the older gettext system, so many of them may not demonstrate best practice. The older system also encouraged constructs like:

msg = "%s %d %s" % (_("Studied"), card_count, _("today"))

Please avoid constructing strings in Python like this, as it makes it hard for translators to translate, and not all languages use English spaces. The above example would be better made into a single translatable string that takes a count argument.

Finally, we should also add one or more comments for translators:

### Lines starting with three hashes are shown in the translation system
### for every string in the file.
### You can use it for a general summary of what a file is dealing with. Not
### all files will need this.

## Lines starting with two hashes are shown for every following string, until
## another set of two hashes is encountered, or the file ends.

# This is a comment that will only apply to the following string. Eg:
# Shown in the add-on management screen (Tools>Add-ons), in the title bar.
addons-you-have-count = { $count ->
    [one] You have { $count } add-on.
   *[other] You have { $count } add-ons.

Accessing the New String

Once you've added one or more strings to the .ftl files, run Anki in the source tree as usual, which will compile the new strings, and make them accessible in Python/Typescript/Rust.


To resolve a string, you can use the following code:

from aqt.utils import tr

msg = tr.addons_you_have_count(count=3)
  • Note how a snake_case() function has been automatically defined as part of the build process, with the correct arguments. These will be checked by the tests, to ensure you don't accidentally use a missing string, or omit an argument/pass the wrong one.
  • The generated function has a docstring based on the original text in the ftl file, so if you're using an editor like PyCharm, you can hover the mouse over a function to see the text it will resolve to.
  • Code in qt/ can use the function, but code in pylib should use instead.

If you'd like to test out the strings in the Python repl, make sure to call set_lang() first.

>>> from anki.lang import set_lang
>>> from aqt.utils import tr
>>> set_lang("en", "")
>>> tr.addons_you_have_count(count=3)
'You have \u20683\u2069 add-ons.'

Note the unicode characters that were inserted. These ensure that when left-to-right and right-to-left languages are mixed, the text flows correctly. For debugging, you can strip the characters off:

>>> from anki.lang import without_unicode_isolation as nosep
>>> nosep(addons_you_have_count(count=3))
'You have 3 add-ons.'
>>> nosep(addons_you_have_count(count=1))
'You have 1 add-on.'


A global is available with automatically generated functions in camelCaps. Eg:

import * as tr from "../lib/ftl";

console.log(tr.statisticsCardsPerDay({ count: 5 }));

The functions have docstrings that have the original text, so you can hover over them to see what the text says.

To make use of the translations, they first need to be fetched from the backend. You'll need to specify the modules you want included, eg:

import { setupI18n, ModuleName } from "../lib/i18n";

await setupI18n({ modules: [ModuleName.STATISTICS] });


The backend and collection structures have an I18n object in .tr, which can be called to get a translation, eg, in a Collection method:

fn main() {

The docstring contains the original translation, and your editor can show you the names of each argument.

The return value is a Cow - if you need a String, you can call .to_string() or .into() on it.

Legacy style

Anki versions before 2.1.44 used a single function and a separate constant instead. Eg, instead of

from aqt.utils import tr

msg = tr.addons_you_have_count(count=3)

they instead used:

from aqt.utils import tr, TR

msg = tr(TR.ADDONS_YOU_HAVE_COUNT, count=3)

This old style will still work for now, but will be removed in the future.

Repeated Content

Sometimes you will need multiple translations that have some text shared between them. For example, the search code has a list of separate error message, such as:

search-invalid-added = Invalid search: 'added:' must be followed by a positive number of days.
search-invalid-edited = Invalid search: 'edited:' must be followed by a positive number of days.

Since there are a lot of separate messages with the same prefix, we can split it off into a separate string:

search-invalid-search = Invalid search: { $reason }
search-invalid-added = 'added:' must be followed by a positive number reason.
search-invalid-edited = 'edited:' must be followed by a positive number of days.

The code can then compose the message from two separate entries. Note that we're using a Fluent variable in the outer string, as some languages may want to place the reason first, not include a space after the colon, and so on.

Avoid HTML where possible

Translators may not have any development experience, and HTML can be difficult to read and translate correctly. Prefer plain text where possible, and when HTML is required or would make things much clearer, consider using markdown instead (see the search translations for an example of how this is done).

Avoid Strings That Will Change

Avoid doing things like listing out a series of options in a string, if there's any chance that list will change in the future. When the string later gets updated (and assuming people don't forget to update it), it will need to be given a new ID so that translators become aware of it, and doing so will mean all the existing translations get invalidated until a translator has a chance to update them, which may take months and sometimes even years.

Avoid Excess Strings

Please try to be conservative with the number of new strings you add, as translator time is precious, and the more strings included in Anki, the more overwhelming it can be for translators. If you need to display an error message for some obscure error that most people will never hit, it probably doesn't need a translation.


Add-ons can make use of existing strings in Anki, but if you wish to add new strings, you'll need to add them to your add-on rather than Anki. How you approach translations in your add-on(s) is up to you:

  • If you don't care about translations, the simplest solution is to use plain strings.
  • The next-easiest option is to place all strings in a dict or python module, and accept pull requests from users that add a new language. You can then select the appropriate dict by looking at what anki.lang.currentLang is set to.
  • If you want proper plural support, you'll want to consider using gettext, though it is considerably more involved than the above solution. It requires separate build steps to extract strings from your source and build compiled versions of the strings. You can have translators email you a completed .po file, or send you a PR. There are online translation services like Launchpad and Crowdin that support gettext, but you would need to either manually upload and download files, or spend some time setting up scripts to do so.

Fluent is not currently recommended for add-ons. There is limited tooling support for it, and you would need to bundle the Fluent Python libraries with your add-on.